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olivine

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alkali basalt

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A fine-grained, dark-coloured, volcanic rock characterized by phenocrysts of olivine, titanium-rich augite, plagioclase, and iron oxides. For similar SiO2 concentrations, alkali basalts...

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andesite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A fine-grained volcanic rock. The andesite line is the boundary between the rocks of the oceanic crust and islands and the rocks of the continental crust in a circum-Pacific belt; the...

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basalt

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A fine-grained basic igneous rock. It is composed chiefly of calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene; other minerals present may be olivine, magnetite, and apatite. Basalt is the...

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basanite

Overview page. Subjects: Art — Earth Sciences and Geography.

An extrusive, mafic igneous rock consisting of a feldspathoid mineral (nepheline, analcite, or leucite), olivine, plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and minor accessory minerals. Essentially,...

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benmoreite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

An extrusive igneous rock consisting of anorthoclase, sodic plagioclase, ferroaugite (an iron-rich augite), and iron-rich olivine, and found as a member of the alkali basalt magma series....

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Bowen's reaction principle

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A concept, first propounded in 1928 by Norman Bowen, which explains how minerals can respond to the changing equilibrium conditions when a magma is cooled, by either a continuous,...

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carrier element

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

1 Major element in a mineral, for which a trace amount of another element may substitute, e.g. Mg (the carrier element) replaced by Ni (the trace element) in olivine.

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chondrite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Stony meteorite; the majority of chondrites are characterized by the presence of chondrules, and they constitute about 86% of meteorite falls. The principal minerals they contain are...

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chondrodite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

Member of the humite group of minerals. The group includes humite, clinohumite, and norbergite; general formula is nMg2[SiO4]Mg(OH,F)2, with n = 1 in norbergite, 2 in chondrodite, 3 in...

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colour index

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The total volume per cent of mafic (coloured) silicate minerals in an igneous rock. The mafic minerals would include the olivine group, pyroxene group, and amphibole group of minerals, as...

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