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philosophy, Muslim

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Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al- Razi

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(d. ca. 925)

Persian scientist, physician, and Platonist philosopher, known in the West as Rhazes. Focused on expansion of empirical medical knowledge and practical procedures for...

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Avicenna

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities.

(980–1037),

Persian-born Islamic philosopher and physician; Arabic name ibn-Sina. His philosophical system, drawing on Aristotle but in many ways closer to Neoplatonism, was the...

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dialectic

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities.

The method of reasoning that proceeds by question and answer and logical argument, famously illustrated by the dialogues of Socrates (470–399bce) as recorded by Plato (c.428–347bce)....

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Ismailis

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

A major Shii Muslim community. Currently number several million and are scattered as Muslim minorities in some twenty-five countries of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North...

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Jundishapur

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

A town in southeastern Iran, traditionally regarded as the central point in the transfer of Graeco-Roman medical ideas and institutions to the Islamic world. Its famous students allegedly...

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Moses ben Joshua of Narbonne

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Religion.

(1300–62).

French Jewish philosopher. Among other works, his commentary on Maimonides' Guide to the Perplexed was well known and was printed with the original text (ed. I. Euchel,...

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polemics, Jewish

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

Jewish responses to Islam lacked the intensity of anti-Christian polemics as, unlike Judaism and Christianity, Judaism and Islam do not argue over a shared sacred text. Moreover, different...

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theology, Muslim

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

In Islam as elsewhere, dogma was the object of intense speculations and hence of intense controversies. In this field, in the Middle Ages, the fundamental opposition was not between Sunnis...

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