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sapphire

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alumina

Overview page. Subjects: Dentistry.

Aluminium oxide (SiO2), a component of dental porcelain. Also used as an abrasive material.

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corundum

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

Mineral, Al2O3; sp. gr. 3.9–4.1; hardness 9; trigonal; the two main varieties blue and green, but can be yellow, or brown to almost black, and transparent; adamantine to vitreous lustre;...

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gems

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities.

Minerals (usually of crystallized matter) used for decorating items such as textiles and liturgical objects or for personal adornment. The most highly prized are the precious stones,...

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precious stone

Overview page. Subjects: Art.

One of the four intrinsically valuable gemstones, diamond, sapphire, ruby, and emerald, which are used in jewellery.

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ruby

Overview page. Subjects: Art — Chemistry.

The transparent red variety of the mineral corundum, the colour being due to the presence of traces of chromium. It is a valuable gemstone, more precious than diamonds. The finest rubies...

See overview in Oxford Index