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Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(1881–1970)

Russian revolutionary. He was a representative of the moderate Labour Party in the Fourth Duma (1912) and joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party during the Russian...

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Bolshevism

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — History.

Political theory and practice of the Bolshevik Party which, under Lenin, came to power during the Russian Revolution of October 1917. The Bolshevik (meaning ‘majority’) radical communist...

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Irish Transport and General Workers' Union

Overview page. Subjects: European History.

(ITGWU),

established in December 1908 following a final breach between James Larkin and his employers, the British‐based National Union of Dock Labourers. The new union, combining...

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Jiangxi Soviet

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

A Chinese communist rural base formed in 1931. Under Kuomintang attack in 1927, some communists moved to the countryside, maintaining their strength through guerrilla warfare in remote...

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Karl Radek

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1885, d. 1939?).

Russian Communist Born Karl Sobelsohn, he was an active Social Democrat in Germany and Poland in 1901, and became a Bolshevik follower of Lenin after meeting...

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Lenin

Overview page. Subjects: History — Social Sciences.

(1870–1924)

A Marxist theoretician and revolutionary, born in Russia, whose early life was characterized by a more or less orthodox Marxism. However, from the late 1890s he...

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Lev Borisovich Kamenev

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(22 July 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).

Soviet politicianBorn Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld in Moscow, he was forced to abandon his law degree at Moscow University in 1902 owing to his...

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Mao Zedong

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — History.

(1893–1976)

Chinese statesman, chairman of the Communist Party of the Chinese People's Republic (1949–76) and head of state (1949–59). After studying Marxism as a student he was...

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Mensheviks

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

The term for the faction of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party which derived its name from the 1903 party congress, when it lost a vote to the Bolsheviks (‘the majority’) over the...

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Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Politics.

(b. 2 Mar. 1931).

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1985–91

Early career

Born in Privolnoye near Stavropol (northern Caucasus) of a...

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