Overview

Philipp Jakob Spener

(1635—1705)

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Adiaphorists

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity.

A party in German Protestantism which held that certain rules and actions were matters of indifference. The first controversy on the subject broke out in connection with the Leipzig Interim...

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August Hermann Francke

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity.

(1663–1727),

German Pietist and educationalist. He was already attracted to a pietistic form of religion when he came into contact with P. J. Spener. In 1691 he was appointed...

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Der Protestantismus

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.

Takes its name from the protesting princes at the Diet of Speyer (see Reformation) and produced in Germany various Churches and creeds of which only a brief outline can be ...

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Gottfried Arnold

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — Christianity.

(1666–1714),

German Protestant theologian and devotional writer. His main work, the Unparteiische Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historie (1699–1700), is important as a history of Protestant...

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Joachim Neander

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — Christianity.

(1650–80),

German hymn-writer. He became an adherent of the Pietist Movement. His hymns reflect his love of the beauties of nature. Those translated into English include ‘Praise...

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Johann Caspar Schade

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.

(Kühndorf nr. Meiningen, 1666–98, Berlin),

Lutheran theologian and pietist who was a friend of J. P. Spener. He wrote hymns which were collected in Fasciculus cantionum (1699). His...

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John Ernest Grabe

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity.

(1666–1711), Anglican divine of German birth. Born and educated at Königsberg, where he was appointed Privatdozent in 1685, he was led to question the validity of Lutheran orders and...

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Lutheranism

Overview page. Subjects: History — Christianity.

While the views of Calvin were largely expounded in one treatise, his Institutes, those of Martin Luther (1483–1546) had to be gleaned from a number of tracts and sermons. Luther took the...

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Pia Desideria

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity.

P. J. Spener's book which aimed at fostering a religious revival in German Protestantism and was a key element in the creation of the Pietist movement. It was written in German and...

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Pietism

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

A devotional movement in the Lutheran church; also any attitude to religion stressing piety and faith rather than evidence and reason. See also fideism.

See overview in Oxford Index