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Sufism

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ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(c.1365/6–c.1412 (ah 767–815).

A Muslim mystic who was a follower of Ibn al-ʿArabī's system and wrote the Sūfī treatise Al-Insān al-Kāmil (The Perfect Man), dealing with cosmic,...

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Abd al-Qadir al- Jilani

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(d. 1166)

Born in Persia. Studied Hanbali jurisprudence in Baghdad. Spent twenty-five years as a wandering ascetic in the deserts of Iraq. Became a popular preacher with his own...

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ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlī

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

1077–1166 (ah 470–561).

Preacher, Ḥanbalite theologian, and supposed founder of the Qādirīya Sūfī order. His fame as an orator attracted students from all over the Muslim world. It...

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Abdal

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(Arab., ‘substitutes’).

A numerical set of seventy Sūfī holy people, constant in number until the end of the world, when their number diminishes and the world ends. The central...

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Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(1186–1237 ce).

Leader of Egyptian Jewry, philosopher, and son of Maimonides. He introduced various new ritual practices, influenced by the Muslim Sūfīs, and therefore aroused...

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Abū Bakr Dulaf b. Jahdar al-Shibli

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(c.861–945 (ah 247–334).

Sūfī mystic of Baghdād. He was originally a high government official but turned to the mystic life at the age of 40. Although he belonged to al-Junaid's ...

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Abū ʾl-Qāsim al-Junaid

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(d. 910 (ah 298).

Sūfī teacher, who influenced al-Hallāj, and who laid the foundations of much of the development of Sufism. From his instructors he received his strong insistence...

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Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī

Overview page. Subjects: Religion — Philosophy.

(d. 875 (ah 261).

A Persian Sūfī, who was given to a life of asceticism and solitude. His only desire in life was to attain a direct experience of divine ...

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Ahl al-Suffa

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

A group of poor Muslims, who were given permission by the Prophet Muḥammad to live in a corner of the Madīna mosque. Later generation of Muslims, especially the Sūfīs, venerated ...

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Ahl-i-Haqq

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

People of the truth. Also known as Ali Ilahis, “deifiers of Ali.” Members of a sect centered in northwest Iran, incorporating certain Shii and Sufi ideas, associated with Sultan Sohak...

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