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transforming growth factor

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acromesomelic dysplasia

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

A group of disorders in which there is disproportionate shortening of skeletal elements, particularly the middle and distal parts of the limbs. Maroteaux-type acromesomelic dysplasia (AMDM)...

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activin

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.

A protein first isolated from the culture fluid of Xenopus cell lines. Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (q.v.) family of intercellular signaling molecules. It acts as...

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betacellulin

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.

One of the EGF family of growth factors, synthesized primarily as a transmembrane precursor (178 aa), which is proteolytically cleaved to produce the mature molecule that binds to the EGF...

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betaglycan

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

A cell‐surface single‐pass transmembrane protein that contains covalently bound chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. It acts as a coreceptor for transforming growth factor β...

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bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.

A family of multifunctional cytokines, the BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Many are growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and may be regulated by...

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Camurati–Engelmann disease

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

A disorder in which there is osteitis (excessive bone growth), particularly of the lower limbs, caused by mutation in TGFB1, the gene for transforming growth factor β. There is a variant of...

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connective tissue growth factor

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.

One of the CCN family of cysteine rich regulatory proteins (CTGF, 349 aa) that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of...

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cytokine

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Science and Mathematics.

pl. n. protein molecules, released by cells when activated by antigen, that are involved in cell-to-cell communications, acting as enhancing mediators for immune responses...

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dorsalin-1

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

A protein of the TGFβ family, originally isolated from chick, that regulates cell differentiation within the neural tube in conjunction with distinct ventralizing signals from the notochord...

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endothelin

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.

(ET)

Any of several related peptides, one of which, endothelin 1 ( ET-1), is released by the endothelium of blood vessels and is a potent vasopressor, causing constriction of...

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epidermal growth factor receptor

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.

(EGFR) a protein on the surface of cells (see receptor) that binds with epidermal growth factor and is therefore involved in cell division. EGFR is expressed at increased levels in numerous...

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juxtacrine activation

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.

Activation that requires contact (juxtaposition), e.g. activation of target cells by membrane-anchored growth factors or of leucocytes by PAF bound to endothelial cell surface. Compare...

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LEFTY

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

Genes involved in the determination of left–right asymmetry; LEFTY1 and -2 encode proteins (366 aa) of the TGFβ family which may antagonize nodal. In mice the equivalent genes are expressed...

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mannose-6-phosphate receptor

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

There are two unrelated receptors, both required for proper sorting of lysosomal enzymes. The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor is a transmembrane protein of ~46 kDa and...

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mix

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

A human gene (MIXL1) encoding a paired class homeobox transcription factor (identified on the basis of homology to the Xenopus homeobox genes mix1 and mix2). The transcription factor...

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patched

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.

The human homologue of the Drosophila gene patched. PTCH1 encodes a transmembrane protein with homology to bacterial proton-driven transmembrane molecular transporters and represses genes...

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SYND2

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

Integral transmembrane proteoglycans (syndecan-1, 310 aa) that link the extracellular matrix with the actin cytoskelton and act as receptors or coreceptors in intracellular communication....

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vegetal hemisphere glycoprotein 1

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

abbr.: Vg‐1; a glycoprotein of the TGF‐β family (see transforming growth factor) that facilitates the differentiation of either mesoderm or endoderm.

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