John Venn

(1834—1923) philosopher and antiquary

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Edward Meredith Cope

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Edward Meredith Cope was born in Birmingham on 28 July 1818 and died in Cambridge on 5 August 1873. He was educated at Shrewsbury, where he was taught by Benjamin Hall Kennedy (1804–89),...

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Overview page. Subjects: Probability and Statistics.

One who views probability as being equal to the limiting relative frequency as the sample size increases. The term was coined by Sir Maurice Kendall who apparently had in mind Venn and von...

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George Boole

Overview page. Subjects: Mathematics — Philosophy.


English mathematician and logician. Born in Lincoln and educated locally, Boole worked as a schoolmaster until he gained recognition as a mathematician, and became...

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.


German philosopher and mathematician, and one of the chief forces leading to the German Enlightenment. He is chiefly remembered in a literary context for parodies of...

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John Neville Keynes

Overview page. Subjects: Economics — Philosophy.


Keynes was born in Salisbury on 31 August 1852, and died in Cambridge on 15 November 1949. He was the only son of a non-conformist nurseryman who built up ...

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Lewis Carroll

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.


Pseudonym of the Revd Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, a mathematics don at Christ Church, Oxford. Best known for his Alice stories, which brim over with logical puzzles and...

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logical connectives

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Logical connectives (otherwise known as ‘logical constants’ or ‘logical particles’) have seemed challenging to philosophers of language. In a dazzling little analysis (bk III, chap. VII,...

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Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

A numerical value given to the expectation that a particular event will occur. Although in scientific usage it is normally reckoned on a scale of 0 (for impossibility) to 1 (certainty), in...

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rule of succession

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Principle used by Laplace in his Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (1814), and named by Venn, for determining a probability of the repetition of an event from its frequency of...

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Venn diagram

Overview page. Subjects: Mathematics.

A simple diagram (see diagram) used to represent unions and intersections of sets. The diagram, described by Venn in 1880 and popularized by his 1881 book Symbolic Logic, was introduced by...

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