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stress

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adaptation energy

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A hypothetical measure of an individual's capacity to resist stress. Each person is believed to have a finite amount of adaptation energy, which is used to cope with different types of...

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appetite

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Zoology and Animal Sciences.

A complex phenomenon, not to be confused with hunger, that in humans is the comparatively pleasant, though at times compelling, anticipation of certain foods. In other animals, appetite is...

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associative coping style

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A technique for managing stress where the subject focuses internally on thoughts and body sensations, but ignores external stimuli. For example, a golfer may focus on the muscle groups...

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break-back thrust

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A thrust fault sequence in which the first fault increases in length until the amount of stress needed to move the volume of rock exceeds the breaking strength of the rock. The hanging wall...

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brittle behaviour

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The manner in which competent rocks lose their internal cohesion along certain surfaces when the elastic limit is exceeded under an applied stress. Such behaviour gives rise to fractures...

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catastrophe theory

Overview page.

Mathematical theory pioneered by the French mathematician René Thom, treating abrupt changes or discontinuities.

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creep

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The slow, gradual movement downslope of soil, scree, or glacier ice. Most creep involves a deformation of the material, i.e. plastic flow.

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crystalloblastic

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A metamorphic texture characterized by the mutual interference of polygonal grains which meet at approximately 120° triple junctions. The texture is produced during solid-state crystal...

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deviatoric stress

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A stress component in a system which consists of unequal principal stresses. There are three deviatoric stresses, obtained by subtracting the mean (or hydrostatic) stress (σ-) from each...

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dilatation

Overview page. Subjects: Mathematics — Earth Sciences and Geography.

The process in which an applied stress leads to a state of strain involving a change in volume. The change in volume is given by: Δv = (V fV o)/V o,...

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Donnagio test

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A qualitative test of mucoproteins used as an indicator of stress. An increase in mucoproteins is associated with a stress reaction induced in the adrenal cortex as a result of metabolic...

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ductile

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science — Earth Sciences and Geography.

The physical property of being able to sustain large plastic deformations without fracture, as occurs in metals that are capable of being hammered thin without breaking, or drawn into a...

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dyke set

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A suite of dykes whose alignment is parallel or subparallel, reflecting their emplacement from a common source and under a common stress regime.

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earthquake

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

In Greek mythology, Poseidon was god of earthquakes, and one of his epithets was ‘earth-shaker’.

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elastic constants

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

For an isotropic material which obeys Hooke's law, where strain is linearly proportional to stress, there are only two independent elastic constants, those of stress and strain. The elastic...

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elastic deformation

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

Temporary deformation, from which material recovers, caused by an applied stress, such that on release of the stress the body reverts to its former, unstrained condition. In purely elastic...

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elastic limit

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Earth Sciences and Geography.

The point at which a material achieves its maximum elastic strain and beyond which strain is no longer linearly related to stress. Beyond the elastic limit flow or rupture induces permanent...

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elastic modulus

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Physics.

Ratio of stress to strain in a given material. Strain may be a change in length, a twist, or a change in volume. See also flexural rigidity, modulus of compression, modulus of rigidity,...

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elasticity

Overview page. Subjects: Physics.

The property of certain materials that enables them to return to their original dimensions after an applied stress has been removed. In general, if a stress is applied to a wire, the strain...

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elastoviscous behaviour

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The strain behaviour of materials which are essentially viscous but which deform elastically under stresses of short duration. Following the release of a longer-term stress the degree of...

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