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base pair

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base

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

A compound that reacts with an acid to give water (and a salt). A base that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions is called an alkali. For example, ammonia reacts as follows:

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base analogue

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry.

A purine or pyrimidine base (see base pair) that differs slightly in structure from the normal base, but that because of its similarity to that base may act as a mutagen when incorporated...

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codon

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A triplet sequence of nucleotides in messenger-RNA that acts as a coding unit for an amino acid during protein synthesis. It binds by base pairing to a complementary sequence, the...

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complementarity

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

The concept that a single model may not be adequate to explain all the observations made of atomic or subatomic systems in different experiments. For example, electron diffraction is best...

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complementary base sequence

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

A sequence of polynucleotides related by the base-pairing rules. For example, in DNA a sequence A-G-T in one strand is complementary to T-C-A in the other strand. A given sequence defines...

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DNA-RNA hybrid

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

A double helix consisting of one DNA chain and one complementary RNA chain, the two chains being held together by hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs.

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double helix

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

The Watson-Crick model of DNA structure, involving plectonemic coiling (q.v.) of two hydrogen-bonded polynucleotide, antiparallel (q.v.) strands wound into a right-handed spiral...

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duplex DNA

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

DNA molecules as described in the Watson-Crick model; that is, with the two polynucleotide chains of opposite 3′-5′ polarity intertwined and annealed.

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gigabase

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.

A unit of length for DNA molecules, consisting of one billion nucleotides; abbreviated gb, or gbp for gigabase pairs. The genomes for Homo sapiens and Pisum sativum are 3.2 and 4.1...

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hydrogen bond

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A type of electrostatic interaction between electronegative (fluorine, nitrogen, or oxygen) atoms in one molecule and hydrogen atoms bound to electronegative atoms in another molecule. It...

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