in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam
August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 85 words.
The lower classes; the downtrodden; the meek; “the barefoot.” Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (d. 1989) popularized this concept in revolutionary
in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World
March 2009; p ublished online November 2007 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Society and Culture; Islam.
Revolutions tend to popularize egalitarian, romantic, and utopian ideas that often mesmerize the masses. In revolutionary Iran, Ayatollah Ruhollah al-Musavi