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calculus

Overview page. Subjects: Dentistry.

A stone formed in an organ or duct; a concretion, usually of mineral salts, that forms in the body (the process of lithiasis). Kidney stones are usually of calcium oxalate.

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calculus

in A Dictionary of Physics

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Physics. 214 words.

A series of mathematical techniques developed independently by Isaac *Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716). Differential calculus treats

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calculus

Edited by Jonathan Law and Richard Rennie.

in A Dictionary of Physics

January 2015; p ublished online September 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Physics. 259 words.

A series of mathematical techniques developed independently by Isaac *Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716). Differential calculus treats

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calculus

Edited by T. F. Hoad.

in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

January 1996; p ublished online January 2003 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: History of English. 22 words.

stone in an animal body; †gen. (system of) calculation XVII; spec. in differential, integral (etc.) calculus XVIII. — L.

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calculus

Alexander D. Oliver.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 735 words.

A calculus is a formal language and rules for manipulating expressions of the language. For example, by applying algorithms to

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calculus

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

A calculus is a formal language and rules for manipulating expressions of the language. For example, by applying algorithms to arabic numerals one can determine the values of arithmetical...

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calculus

Overview page. Subjects: Physics.

A series of mathematical techniques developed independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716). Differential calculus treats a continuously varying quantity as if it...

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process calculus

Edited by Andrew Butterfield and Gerard Ekembe Ngondi.

in A Dictionary of Computer Science

January 2016; p ublished online January 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Computing. 86 words.

The study of abstract computing processes by means of various formal systems and calculuses. An early influential calculus was the

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process calculus

John Daintith and Edmund Wright.

in A Dictionary of Computing

January 2008; p ublished online January 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Computing. 86 words.

The study of abstract computing processes by means of various formal systems and calculuses. An early influential calculus was the

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predicate calculus

Alan Lacey.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 197 words.

A device (also called the functional calculus, or calculus of relations) for formalizing and systematizing the logical relations between propositions

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stochastic calculus

Graham Upton and Ian Cook.

in A Dictionary of Statistics

January 2014; p ublished online September 2014 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Probability and Statistics. 18 words.

An extension, introduced by *Ito, of the methods of calculus to a *stochastic process.

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predicate calculus

Simon Blackburn.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

January 2016; p ublished online March 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 110 words.

The *logical calculus in which the expressions include *predicate letters, *variables, and *quantifiers, names,

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predicate calculus

Simon Blackburn.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

January 2008; p ublished online January 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 110 words.

The *logical calculus in which the expressions include *predicate letters, *variables, and *quantifiers, names,

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sentential calculus

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Where a proposition is understood to be a completely interpreted indicative sentence of a language, ‘sentential calculus’ and ‘propositional calculus’ may be used interchangeably.

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predicate calculus

Edited by Andrew Butterfield and Gerard Ekembe Ngondi.

in A Dictionary of Computer Science

January 2016; p ublished online January 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Computing. 450 words.

A fundamental notation for representing and reasoning with logical statements. It extends *propositional calculus by introducing the *quantifiers

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predicate calculus

John Daintith and Edmund Wright.

in A Dictionary of Computing

January 2008; p ublished online January 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Computing. 450 words.

A fundamental notation for representing and reasoning with logical statements. It extends *propositional calculus by introducing the *quantifiers

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sentential calculus

Ruth Barcan Marcus.

in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 101 words.

Where a proposition is understood to be a completely interpreted indicative sentence of a language, ‘sentential calculus’ and ‘propositional

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propositional calculus

Simon Blackburn.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

January 2008; p ublished online January 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 73 words.

The *logical calculus whose expressions are letters representing sentences or propositions, and constants representing operations on those propositions, to

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propositional calculus

Simon Blackburn.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

January 2016; p ublished online March 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Philosophy. 73 words.

The *logical calculus whose expressions are letters representing sentences or propositions, and constants representing operations on those propositions, to

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integral calculus

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 64 words.

In mathematics, branch of calculus that deals with integration: the finding of a function, one or more derivatives of which

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differential calculus

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 28 words.

Form of calculus used to calculate the rate of change (derivative) of one quantity with respect to another

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