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causal effect

Overview page. Subjects: Dentistry.

An association between two characteristics that can be demonstrated to be due to cause and effect: a change in one characteristic produces a change in the other.

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Multiple Causal Pathways and Effect Modification

Noel S. Weiss.

in Exercises in Epidemiology

December 2016; p ublished online December 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Statistics and Methodology. 6793 words.

This chapter introduces the concept of multiple causal pathways and effect modification in epidemiology. Students can practice what they have learned in class with 24 questions based on...

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Measurement bias and effect restoration in causal inference

Manabu Kuroki and Judea Pearl.

in Biometrika

June 2014; p ublished online March 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Biomathematics and Statistics; Probability and Statistics. 0 words.

This paper highlights several areas where graphical techniques can be harnessed to address the problem of measurement errors in causal inference. In particular, it discusses the control of...

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Sensitivity analyses for parametric causal mediation effect estimation

Jeffrey M. Albert and Wei Wang.

in Biostatistics

April 2015; p ublished online November 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Probability and Statistics. 6253 words.

Causal mediation analysis uses a potential outcomes framework to estimate the direct effect of an exposure on an outcome and its indirect effect through an intermediate variable (or...

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causal effect

Overview page. Subjects: Dentistry.

An association between two characteristics that can be demonstrated to be due to cause and effect: a change in one characteristic produces a change in the other.

See overview in Oxford Index

causal effect

Edited by Robert Ireland.

in A Dictionary of Dentistry

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Dentistry. 29 words.

An association between two characteristics that can be demonstrated to be due to cause and effect: a change in one

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“Proportion Explained”: A Causal Interpretation for Standard Measures of Indirect Effect?

Danella M. Hafeman.

in American Journal of Epidemiology

December 2009; p ublished online October 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 3787 words.

The assessment of indirect effects is an important tool for epidemiologists interested in exploring the mechanisms of exposure-disease relations. A standard way of expressing an indirect...

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Common Genes or Exogenous Shock? Disentangling the Causal Effect of Paternal Unemployment on Children's Schooling Efforts

Signe Hald Andersen.

in European Sociological Review

June 2013; p ublished online December 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Sociology. 7071 words.

A number of studies analyse the relationship between parents’ labour market status and various child outcomes, without considering if the relationship is causal. However, within this field...

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The causal effect of malaria on stunting: a Mendelian randomization and matching approach

Hyunseung Kang, Benno Kreuels, Ohene Adjei, Ralf Krumkamp, Jürgen May and Dylan S Small.

in International Journal of Epidemiology

October 2013; p ublished online August 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 5002 words.

Background Previous studies on the association of malaria and stunted growth delivered inconsistent results. These conflicting results may be due to different levels of...

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Causal Effect of Genetic Variants Associated With Body Mass Index on Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility

Milena A. Gianfrancesco, M. Maria Glymour, Stefan Walter, Brooke Rhead, Xiaorong Shao, Ling Shen, Hong Quach, Alan Hubbard, Ingileif Jónsdóttir, Kári Stefánsson, Pernilla Strid, Jan Hillert, Anna Hedström, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Catherine Schaefer, Lars Alfredsson and Lisa F. Barcellos.

in American Journal of Epidemiology

February 2017; p ublished online February 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 6414 words.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies indicate that childhood and...

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Causal Inference in Occupational Epidemiology: Accounting for the Healthy Worker Effect by Using Structural Nested Models

Ashley I. Naimi, David B. Richardson and Stephen R. Cole.

in American Journal of Epidemiology

December 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 3970 words.

In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218–1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of...

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Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USA

Takeo Fujiwara and Ichiro Kawachi.

in International Journal of Epidemiology

October 2009; p ublished online June 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 6203 words.

Background More years of schooling is generally associated with better health. However, this association may be confounded by unobserved common prior causes such as inherited...

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Causal Effect of Parental Schooling on Early Childhood Undernutrition: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From Zimbabwe

Jan-Walter De Neve and S V Subramanian.

in American Journal of Epidemiology

January 2018; p ublished online June 2017 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 6829 words.

Abstract

An estimated 3.1 million children die each year because of undernutrition. Although cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found a protective...

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Kupffer cells are causally responsible for the mitogenic effect of peroxisome proliferators.

M L Rose, D R Germolec, R Schoonhoven and R G Thurman.

in Carcinogenesis

August 1997; p ublished online August 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. 0 words.

WY-14,643 [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)pyrimidinylthio-acetic acid] is a well-known non-genotoxic carcinogen and peroxisome proliferator that causes liver cancer in rodents by unknown...

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causal effect <i>n.</i>

Andrew M. Colman.

in A Dictionary of Psychology

January 2008; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Psychology. 16 words.

A change in a dependent variable brought about directly by an independent variable.

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causal effect <i>n.</i>

Andrew M. Colman.

in A Dictionary of Psychology

January 2015; p ublished online May 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Psychology. 16 words.

A change in a *dependent variable brought about directly by an *independent variable.

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indirect (causal) effect

John Scott and Gordon Marshall.

in A Dictionary of Sociology

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sociology. 6 words.

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direct (causal) effect

John Scott and Gordon Marshall.

in A Dictionary of Sociology

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sociology. 6 words.

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direct (causal) effect

Edited by John Scott.

in A Dictionary of Sociology

January 2014; p ublished online May 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sociology. 6 words.

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Sex hormone-binding globulin associations with circulating lipids and metabolites and the risk for type 2 diabetes: observational and causal effect estimates

Qin Wang, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Tiainen, Tuulia Tynkkynen, Katri Puukka, Aimo Ruokonen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Veikko Salomaa, Markus Perola, George Davey Smith, Olli T Raitakari, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Peter Würtz, Johannes Kettunen and Mika Ala-Korpela.

in International Journal of Epidemiology

April 2015; p ublished online June 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 6921 words.

Background: The causal role of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for type 2 diabetes is controversial. Information on the relations between SHBG and new...

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Do employment factors reduce the effect of low education on mental health? A causal mediation analysis using a national panel study

Allison Milner, Tony Blakely, George Disney, Anne M Kavanagh, Anthony D LaMontagne and Zoe Aitken.

in International Journal of Epidemiology

October 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology. 4964 words.

Abstract

Background

Young people with low education have worse health than those with higher education. This paper...

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