Journal Article

Prophylactic milrinone during OPCAB of posterior vessels: implication in angina patients taking β-blockers

Jin-Hee Kim, Byung Moon Ham, Yong Lak Kim, Jae-Hyon Bahk, Ho-Geol Ryu, Yoon-Seok Jeon and Ki-Bong Kim

in European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Published on behalf of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Volume 24, issue 5, pages 770-776
Published in print November 2003 | ISSN: 1010-7940
Published online November 2003 | e-ISSN: 1873-734X | DOI:
Prophylactic milrinone during OPCAB of posterior vessels: implication in angina patients taking β-blockers

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Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia
  • Cardiovascular Medicine


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Objective: To determine whether a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor can improve hemodynamics during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) of posterior vessels in patients on β1-adrenoreceptor blockers. Methods: Thirty patients scheduled for OPCAB of the obtuse marginal artery (OM), and taking atenolol 100 mg a day were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either milrinone or placebo. Hemodynamic data were obtained after induction, before pericardial incision, during left anterior descending artery grafting, during OM grafting, and after removal of the stabilizer. During the OM grafting, dopamine was infused when the cardiac index (CI) decreased below 2.0 L/min/m2, and phenylephrine was infused to maintain the arterial pressure with a CI above 2.0 L/min/m2. Results: During OM anastomosis, there were significant differences in CI (milrinone [M] = +7.7%, control [C] = −13.7%, p=0.01), SVI (M=−21.5%, C=−35.8%, p=0.03), SvO2 (M=−2.6%, C=−8.9%, p=0.02), and SVR (M=−28.1%, C=+1.1%, p=0.01) between the two groups, in terms of percentage change from baseline value. Dopamine was required more frequently and at a higher dose in the control group (M=13%, 5.0 μg/kg/min; C=67%, 10.1 μg/kg/min, p<0.05). Phenylephrine was infused in 33% of the patients in the milrinone group compared to 13% in the control group (p>0.05). Conclusions: Prophylactic milrinone improves CI, SVI and SvO2 reducing the need for high doses of dopamine during OM anastomosis in patients taking atenolol. Therefore, it can be used as an alternative to dopamine improving hemodynamics and organ perfusion during OPCAB of posterior vessels in patients on β1-blockers.

Keywords: Atenolol; Cardiac index; Milrinone; Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft; Obtuse marginal artery

Journal Article.  3376 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia ; Cardiovascular Medicine

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