Journal Article

Validation of the stochastic distorted-wave Born approximation model with broad bandwidth total target strength measurements of Antarctic krill

David A. Demer and Stéphane G. Conti

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

Published on behalf of ICES/CIEM

Volume 60, issue 3, pages 625-635
Published in print January 2003 | ISSN: 1054-3139
Published online January 2003 | e-ISSN: 1095-9289 | DOI:
Validation of the stochastic distorted-wave Born approximation model with broad bandwidth total target strength measurements of Antarctic krill

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  • Environmental Science
  • Marine and Estuarine Biology


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Total-scattering cross-sections (σt) of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) were measured over a broad bandwidth (36–202 kHz) using a new technique based on acoustical reverberation in a cavity. From 18 February to 9 March 2002, mean total target strengths (TTS = 10 log(σt/4π)), were measured from groups of 57–1169 krill (average standard length=31.6 mm; standard deviation=6.6 mm) at the Cape Shirreff field station, Livingston Island, Antarctica, and aboard RV “Yuzhmorgeologiya”. Chirp pulses were transmitted sequentially by an omni-directional emitter into one of three glass carboys containing groups of krill swimming in 9.3, 19.3, or 45.9 liters of seawater (0.6°C≤temperature≤4.0°C). Between each pulse the krill moved within the fixed-boundary tank and the modulated reverberations were sensed bi-statically with three omni-directional receivers. At each center frequency (fc), the coherent energy in 200-pulse ensembles identified sound scattered by the tank. The incoherent energy described total sound scattering from the krill. Thus, the TTS at each fc was extracted from a correlation analysis of energy reverberated in the tank. Measurement bias was determined to be ±0.4 dB from an experiment using metal sphere reference targets, and the precision was estimated as ±0.8 dB from the variability in the krill TTS (fc) measurements. The empirical estimates of mean σt corroborated a krill-scattering model based on the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), enhanced by the authors to account for the stochastic nature of sound scattering (SDWBA), integrated over all scattering angles and averaged over all incident angles (SDWBATTS). The SDWBA, solved for target strength of Antarctic krill, may be the best predictor of backscatter for this important species and may also provide backscattering spectra for improving their acoustic identification. These advances may help to reduce uncertainty in krill-biomass estimation using multi-frequency echosounder data and echo-integration methods.

Keywords: Antarctic krill; broadband; classification; stochastic distorted-wave Born approximation model; total cross-section; total target strength

Journal Article.  4029 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Environmental Science ; Marine and Estuarine Biology

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