Journal Article

Food ingestion in juvenile cod estimated by inert lanthanide markers – effects of food particle size

Oddvard Garatun-Tjeldstø, Håkon Otterå, Kåre Julshamn and Erland Austreng

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

Published on behalf of ICES/CIEM

Volume 63, issue 2, pages 311-319
Published in print January 2006 | ISSN: 1054-3139
Published online January 2006 | e-ISSN: 1095-9289 | DOI:
Food ingestion in juvenile cod estimated by inert lanthanide markers – effects of food particle size

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  • Environmental Science
  • Marine and Estuarine Biology


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Development of formulated starter diets and improvement of diets for juvenile marine fish species are major challenges in aquaculture. The ingestion rate may be regarded as a parameter for evaluating whether a diet particle is available, recognized, of adequate size, palatable, and preferred by small fish. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food particle size (150–3425 μm) on ingestion rate in juvenile cod (36–826 mg wet weight). Lanthanide oxides were used as markers. Several mixtures of lanthanide marker-labelled diets were produced by combination of the mono-labelled size classes. Each combination was fed for one, four, or seven days to groups of juvenile cod in separate tanks. After termination by anaesthetic, the fish were collected, individually weighed, and frozen until analysis. The amount of lanthanides in the homogenized fish was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There were no significant differences in ingestion of any of the markers when given in a mixture of mono-labelled particles. Thus, the markers Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Dy2O3, and Yb2O3 may be used as inert tools for evaluating diet ingestion. The total intake of dry diet was about 13 mg g−1 body weight. The particle size that caused the highest food intake was less than 1.2 mm in all experiments.

Keywords: cod; diet preference; Gadus morhua; inert lanthanide marker; particle size

Journal Article.  4664 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Environmental Science ; Marine and Estuarine Biology

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