Journal Article

Growth, survival, and development of Atlantic cod (<i>Gadus morhua</i> L.) weaned onto diets containing various sources of marine protein

I. Opstad, J. Suontama, E. Langmyhr and R.E. Olsen

in ICES Journal of Marine Science

Published on behalf of ICES/CIEM

Volume 63, issue 2, pages 320-325
Published in print January 2006 | ISSN: 1054-3139
Published online January 2006 | e-ISSN: 1095-9289 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.11.014
Growth, survival, and development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) weaned onto diets containing various sources of marine protein

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We studied the effects of partial or complete substitution of fishmeal with alternative sources of marine protein (amphipod or krill meal) on growth, survival, liver index, and deformities of juvenile cod (Gadus morhua L.). The diets contained either 100% fishmeal or fishmeal that was replaced with 25%, 50%, or 100% amphipod meal or 50% or 100% Antarctic krill meal. Cod larvae were start-fed on rotifers and weaned directly to one of the six formulated feeds at a mean wet weight of 28 mg, 40 days post first-feeding. The mean weight of fish reared on different diets at the end of the experiment ranged from 0.92 to 2.52 g. The best growth was obtained by cod fed 100% fishmeal and 50% krill meal. There was a trend in the direction of slower growth with increasing levels of amphipod meal in the diets. Survival ranged from 87% to 79%, and there was a tendency for higher mortality with increasing content of amphipod meal. The liver index varied between 11.7% and 9.9%. The composition of the diets also had a significant influence on the occurrence of skeletal deformities. The highest proportion of deformities (16% of all fish) was in fish fed 100% amphipod meal, decreasing as the proportion of amphipod meal in the diets declined. A similar effect was not seen with Antarctic krill meal. The amphipod meal had a high content of ash, fluoride, cadmium, and mercury, which may have caused the deformities.

Keywords: alternative protein sources; cod; weaning

Journal Article.  3874 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Environmental Science ; Marine and Estuarine Biology

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