Journal Article

Brain dopamine D<sub>4</sub> receptors: basic and clinical status

Frank I. Tarazi and Ross J. Baldessarini

in International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Published on behalf of International College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Volume 2, issue 1, pages 41-58
Published in print March 1999 | ISSN: 1461-1457
Published online March 1999 | e-ISSN: 1469-5111 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145799001352
Brain dopamine D4 receptors: basic and clinical status

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Abstract

Since their discovery in 1991, an extraordinary amount of information has accumulated about the neurobiology and pharmacology of D4 receptors in the mammalian central nervous system, making it timely to review salient aspects of this rapidly evolving research story and its relevance to clinical neuroscience. Recent progress in the molecular, genetic, anatomical, and functional characterization of D4 receptors in the animal and human brain is yielding insights into their neurochemical and physiological roles in brain function. The temporal patterns of postnatal D4 receptor development appear to differ in specific regions of mammalian forebrain. Postmortem neuropathological and clinical genetic studies have generally been disappointing regarding possible relationships of D4 receptors to the pathophysiology or treatment of schizophrenia, however, they suggest relationships to other neuropsychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, and Parkinson's disease. Several selective agonists and antagonists for D4 receptors have been developed. Some are employed as experimental D4 probes. The potential of D4-selective ligands as innovative treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders requires further investigation.

Keywords: Antipsychotics; D4; development; dopamine; genetics; mRNA; receptors; schizophrenia

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