Journal Article

Increased Disease Burden and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Causing Severe Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children

Shabir A Madhi, Karen Petersen, Anas Madhi, Mannikhant Khoosal and Keith P. Klugman

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 31, issue 1, pages 170-176
Published in print July 2000 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online July 2000 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/313925
Increased Disease Burden and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Causing Severe Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children

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To improve the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children, we assessed the burden of disease, clinical outcome and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing severe community-acquired LRTI in children. A prospective, descriptive study was performed in the pediatric wards at a secondary and tertiary care hospital in South Africa. Urban black children aged 2–60 months admitted with severe acute LRTI from March 1997 through February 1998 were enrolled. HIV-1 infection was present in 45.1% of 1215 cases of severe LRTI. Bacteremia occurred in 14.9% of HIV-1-infected and in 6.5% of HIV-1-uninfected children (P<.00001). The estimated relative incidence of bacteremic severe LRTI in children aged from 2 to 24 months were greater in HIV-1-infected than in -uninfected children for Streptococcus pneumoniae (risk ratio [RR], 42.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.7–90.2), Haemophilus influenzae type b (RR, 21.4; 95% CI, 9.4–48.4), Staphylococcus aureus (RR, 97.9; 95% CI, 11.4–838.2) and Escherichia coli (RR, 49.0; 95% CI, 15.4–156). Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also more common in HIV-1-infected than in -uninfected children (RR, 22.5; 95% CI, 13.4–37.6). In HIV-1-infected children, 60% of S. aureus and 85.7% of E. coli isolates were resistant to methicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. The case-fatality rates among HIV-1-infected children was 13.1%, and among HIV-1-uninfected children, 2.1% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]; 6.52, 95% CI, 3.53–12.05; P<.00001). The changing spectrum of bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in HIV-1-infected children requires a reevaluation of the empirical treatment of community-acquired severe LRTI in children from developing countries with a high prevalence of childhood HIV-1 infection.

Journal Article.  4229 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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