Journal Article

Clinical and Immunological Risk Factors Associated with <i>Haemophilus influenzae</i> Type b Conjugate Vaccine Failure in Childhood

P. T. Heath, R. Booy, H. Griffiths, E. Clutterbuck, H. J. Azzopardi, M. P. E. Slack, J. Fogarty, A. C. Moloney and E. R. Moxon

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 31, issue 4, pages 973-980
Published in print October 2000 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online October 2000 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/318132
Clinical and Immunological Risk Factors Associated with Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine Failure in Childhood

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Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have proved extremely efficacious in healthy children. True Hib vaccine failures are rare. Hib conjugate vaccines were introduced for routine immunization in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland in 1992. Coincident with this, active prospective and national surveillance via pediatricians, microbiologists, and public health physicians was commenced to assess the clinical and immunological factors associated with vaccine failure. During the 6 years of the study, 115 children with true vaccine failure were reported. Of the children who were vaccinated before 12 months of age, a clinical risk factor was detected in 20%, an immunological deficiency was detected in 30%, and one or both were detected in 44%. Children who were vaccinated after 12 months of age were more likely to have one or both factors (67%). Thirty percent (33 of 105) of children with true vaccine failure had a low Hib antibody response (concentration, <1.0 µg/mL) after disease, but the majority then responded to a further dose of Hib vaccine. Children who develop Hib disease despite vaccination deserve further clinical and immunological evaluation.

Journal Article.  6071 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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