Journal Article

Parallel Analysis of Individual and Aggregated Data on Antibiotic Exposure and Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli

Stephan Harbarth, Anthony D. Harris, Yehuda Carmeli and Matthew H. Samore

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 33, issue 9, pages 1462-1468
Published in print November 2001 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online November 2001 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/322677
Parallel Analysis of Individual and Aggregated Data on Antibiotic Exposure and Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli

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To evaluate the potential bias of analyzing aggregated data, we separately examined antibiotic exposure and resistance data for 35,423 patients admitted to a university hospital in Utah, from both an individual-patient perspective and group-level perspective. From 1994 through 1998, use of defined daily doses (per 1000 patient-days) of fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, ampicillin-sulbactam, and imipenem increased by 82%, 38%, and 99%, and decreased by 38%, respectively, whereas group-level resistance rates of Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas species changed only minimally. However, in individual-patient—level analyses performed by multivariable proportional hazards regression, exposure to a fluoroquinolone, third-generation cephalosporin, ampicillin-sulbactam, or imipenem was a strong risk factor for resistance to fluoroquinolones (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 4.0; P < .001), third-generation cephalosporins (AHR, 3.5; P < .001), ampicillin-sulbactam (AHR, 2.3; P = .008), or imipenem (AHR, 5.7; P < .001), respectively. Thus, group-level and individual-patient—level analyses of antibiotic-use-versus-susceptibility relations yielded divergent results. Multicenter studies should include individual-patient—level data to elucidate more fully the relation between antibiotic exposure and resistance.

Journal Article.  2989 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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