Journal Article

Clinical Indicators of Immune Restoration following Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Kenneth H. Mayer and Elizabeth L. Cooney

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 34, issue 2, pages 224-233
Published in print January 2002 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online January 2002 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/323898
Clinical Indicators of Immune Restoration following Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

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The course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is characterized by a progressive decline in immune function. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed patients to experience a significant degree of immune restoration when compared with the era before the availability of HAART. Multiple studies, which have employed sophisticated in vitro measures of immune function, have demonstrated improvement in CD4+ lymphocyte (T4) responses to various opportunistic pathogens. In addition, for patients treated during acute HIV infection, HIV-specific T4 responses have been restored. By contrast, there are a limited number of in vivo measures of T4 function available to assess immune recovery following initiation of HAART. The primary measurement is an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, the significance of which may be underappreciated. Delayed-type hypersensitivity testing to recall antigens and serological response to prophylactic vaccines may also have a role. This review discusses available markers of immune function and offers suggestions regarding their use in HAART recipients.

Journal Article.  4545 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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