Journal Article

Antenatal Vitamin A Supplementation Increases Birth Weight and Decreases Anemia among Infants Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women in Malawi

Newton Kumwenda, Paolo G. Miotti, Taha E. Taha, Robin Broadhead, Robert J. Biggar, J. Brooks Jackson, George Melikian and Richard D. Semba

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 35, issue 5, pages 618-624
Published in print September 2002 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online September 2002 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/342297
Antenatal Vitamin A Supplementation Increases Birth Weight and Decreases Anemia among Infants Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women in Malawi

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Vitamin A is essential for immunity and growth. A controlled clinical that involved 697 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women was conducted to determine whether vitamin A prevents anemia, low birth weight, growth failure, HIV transmission, and mortality. Women received daily doses of iron and folate, either alone or combined with vitamin A (3 mg retinol equivalent), from 18–28 weeks' gestation until delivery. In the vitamin A and control groups, respectively, the mean (±SE) birth weights were 2895 ± 31 g and 2805 ± 32 g (P = .05), the proportions of low-birth-weight infants were 14.0% and 21.1% (P = .03), the proportions of anemic infants at 6 weeks postpartum were 23.4% and 40.6% (P < .001), and the respective cumulative proportions of infants who were HIV infected at 6 weeks and 24 months of age were 26.6% and 27.8% (P = .76) and 27.7% and 32.8% (P = .21). Receipt of vitamin A improved birth weight and neonatal growth and reduced anemia, but it did not affect perinatal HIV transmission.

Journal Article.  4622 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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