Journal Article

A Molecular Epidemiological Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in San Francisco

Adrian Ong, Jennifer Creasman, Philip C. Hopewell, Leah C. Gonzalez, Maida Wong, Robert M. Jasmer and Charles L. Daley

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 38, issue 1, pages 25-31
Published in print January 2004 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online January 2004 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/380448
A Molecular Epidemiological Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in San Francisco

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The epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is not well understood. We studied all cases of extrapulmonary TB reported in San Francisco during 1991–2000 to determine risk factors for extrapulmonary TB and the proportion caused by recent infection. Isolates were analyzed by IS6110-based restriction fragment—length polymorphisms analysis. There were 480 cases of extrapulmonary TB, of which 363 (76%) were culture positive; isolates were genotyped for 301 cases (83%). Multivariate analysis identified young age, female sex, and HIV infection as independent risk factors for nonrespiratory TB (excluding pulmonary, pleural, and disseminated TB). Pleural TB was less common in HIV-seropositive persons and women than were nonrespiratory forms of extrapulmonary TB. Pleural TB is different from other forms of extrapulmonary TB and is associated with the highest clustering rate (35% of cases) of all forms of TB. This high rate of clustering occurs because pleural TB is often an early manifestation of recent infection.

Journal Article.  3498 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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