Journal Article

Reptiles, Amphibians, and Human <i>Salmonella</i> Infection: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

Jonathan Mermin, Lori Hutwagner, Duc Vugia, Sue Shallow, Pamela Daily, Jeffrey Bender, Jane Koehler, Ruthanne Marcus and Frederick J. Angulo

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 38, issue Supplement_3, pages S253-S261
Published in print April 2004 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online April 2004 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/381594
Reptiles, Amphibians, and Human Salmonella Infection: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

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To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996–1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.2; P < .009) and with infection with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella (OR, 4.2; CI, 1.8–9.7; P < .001). The population attributable fraction for reptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons <21 years old. These data suggest that reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with ∼74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

Journal Article.  6135 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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