Journal Article

Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Intravenous Vaccinia Immune Globulin in Healthy Volunteers

Robert J. Hopkins, William G. Kramer, William C. Blackwelder, Minal Ashtekar, Lynda Hague, Salome D. Winker—La Roche, Gregory Berezuk, David Smith and Philip T. Leese

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 39, issue 6, pages 759-766
Published in print September 2004 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online September 2004 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/422998
Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Intravenous Vaccinia Immune Globulin in Healthy Volunteers

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  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology
  • Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Microbiology

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Background. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) administered via the intramuscular route has historically been used for the treatment of complications of smallpox vaccination. Intravenous formulations of VIG are required to improve tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile.

Methods. We conducted 2 separate studies to evaluate the feasibility of administration of an intravenous formulation of antivaccinia immune globulin (VIGIV). The first study assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of a newly manufactured lyophilized VIG product for intravenous administration (VIGIV-lyo). Seventy-eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of VIGIV-lyo at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg. In the second study, we evaluated the safety of a liquid product of VIGIV (VIGIV-liq) in 33 healthy volunteers receiving an intravenous infusion of 100 mg/kg VIGIV-liq.

Results. The geometric mean titer of VIG at the target dose (100 mg/kg) after intravenous administration is 2.5 times higher than the predicted geometric mean titer after intramuscular injection (P < .001). The pharmacokinetics of VIGIV-lyo are linear for doses from 100 mg/kg through 500 mg/kg. Administration of the 200-mg/kg and 500-mg/kg doses of VIGIV-lyo does not result in markedly higher adverse event rates. The adverse event rates observed with the liquid product are comparable to those seen with the lyophilized product.

Conclusions. These 2 studies suggest that intravenous administration of VIG is well tolerated and results in a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than does VIG administered intramuscularly.

Journal Article.  3734 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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