Journal Article

Development of HIV with Drug Resistance after CD4 Cell Count—Guided Structured Treatment Interruptions in Patients Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy after Dual—Nucleoside Analogue Treatment

Reto Nuesch, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Sasiwimol Ubolyam, Umaporn Siangphoe, Andrew Hill, David Cooper, Joep Lange, Praphan Phanuphak and Kiat Ruxrungtham

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 40, issue 5, pages 728-734
Published in print March 2005 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online March 2005 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/427878
Development of HIV with Drug Resistance after CD4 Cell Count—Guided Structured Treatment Interruptions in Patients Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy after Dual—Nucleoside Analogue Treatment

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Background. For patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, structured treatment interruption (STI) is an attractive alternative strategy to continuous treatment, particularly in resource-restrained settings, because it reduces both side effects and costs. One major concern, however, is the development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs that can occur during multiple cycles of starting and stopping therapy.

Methods. HIV genotypic drug resistance was investigated in 20 HIV-infected Thai patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and CD4 cell count—guided STI after dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) treatment. Resistance was tested at the time of the switch from dual-NRTI treatment to HAART and when HAART was stopped during the last interruption.

Results. After STI, one major drug-resistance mutation occurred (T215Y), and, in the 4 samples with preexisting major mutations (D67N [n = 2], K70R [n = 2], T215Y [n = 2], and T215I [n = 1]), the mutations disappeared. All mutations in the HIV protease gene were minor mutations already present, in most cases, before STI was started, and their frequency was not increased through STI, whereas the frequency of reverse-transcriptase gene mutations significantly decreased after the interruptions. After the 48-week study period, no patients had virological failure. Long-term follow-up (108 weeks) showed 1 case of virological failure in the STI arm and 1 in the continuous arm. No virological failure was seen in patients with major mutations.

Conclusions. Major HIV drug-resistance mutations were not induced through CD4 cell count—guided treatment interruptions in HIV-infected patients successfully treated with HAART after dual-NRTI therapy.

Journal Article.  4478 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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