Journal Article

Incomplete HIV Type 1 Antibody Evolution and Seroreversion in Acutely Infected Individuals Treated with Early Antiretroviral Therapy

Sigall Kassutto, Mary N. Johnston and Eric S. Rosenberg

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 40, issue 6, pages 868-873
Published in print March 2005 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online March 2005 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/428127
Incomplete HIV Type 1 Antibody Evolution and Seroreversion in Acutely Infected Individuals Treated with Early Antiretroviral Therapy

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology
  • Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Microbiology

GO

Show Summary Details

Preview

Background. The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by standard tests relies on the formation of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Early treatment of acute HIV-1 infection may have unique immunologic effects on host cellular and humoral responses. Rare cases of HIV-1 seroreversion have been reported for patients with advanced or rapidly progressive disease. Here, we report seroreversion that occurred in subjects with acute HIV-1 infection who initiated early antiretroviral therapy.

Methods. A total of 150 patients with symptomatic acute or early onset HIV-1 infection that was treated with antiretroviral therapy were observed prospectively by means of monthly clinical and laboratory evaluation, which included serial HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, until a fully evolved HIV-1 antibody response was documented.

Results. Three patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy a mean interval of 8 days (range, 1-16 days) after presentation and were observed for a mean duration of 50.2 months (range, 40.2-55.7 months) did not develop a fully evolved HIV-1 antibody response or demonstrated complete or partial HIV-1 seroreversion, despite maintenance of cytomegalovirus-specific humoral responses. Virologic suppression and seroreversion (complete or partial) occurred a mean duration of 4.1 months (range, 2.3-5.7 months) and 15.5 months (range, 6.7-26.3 months), respectively, after the initiation of therapy. All patients maintained complete virologic suppression while receiving therapy and had an undetectable HIV-1 RNA load at the time of seroreversion.

Conclusions. Early antiretroviral therapy associated with durable virologic suppression in acute HIV-1 infection may abrogate the formation or detection of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Ongoing antigenic stimulation may be required to maintain HIV-1-specific humoral responses. Incomplete evolution of the HIV-1 antibody response and/or presence of seroreversion (although infrequently observed) underscore the potential unique immunologic effect of early antiretroviral therapy in patients with primary HIV-1 infection.

Journal Article.  2658 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.