Journal Article

Temporal Trends of Invasive Disease Due to <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> among Children in the Intermountain West: Emergence of Nonvaccine Serogroups

Carrie L. Byington, Matthew H. Samore, Gregory J. Stoddard, Steve Barlow, Judy Daly, Kent Korgenski, Sean Firth, David Glover, Jasmin Jensen, Edward O. Mason, Cheryl K. Shutt and Andrew T. Pavia

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 41, issue 1, pages 21-29
Published in print July 2005 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online July 2005 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/430604
Temporal Trends of Invasive Disease Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children in the Intermountain West: Emergence of Nonvaccine Serogroups

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Background. Use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 [Prevnar]) has been associated with decreased a incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in the United States.

Methods. Cases of IPD in children <18 years of age insured by or receiving health care from Intermountain Health Care during 1996–2003 were identified. Isolates of S. pneumoniae from children with IPD treated at Primary Children's Medical Center (PCMC; Salt Lake City, UT) during 1997–2003 were serogrouped. Temporal trends of IPD, serogroup distribution of pneumococci, and antibiotic resistance among pneumococci were analyzed.

Results. A total of 1535 cases of IPD were identified. The rate of IPD decreased 27% after the introduction of PCV7. Among children with IPD who were cared for at PCMC, disease in 73% was caused by PCV7 serogroups in 1997–2000, compared with 50% in 2001–2003 (P < .001), and the percentage of isolates resistant to penicillin decreased from 34% in 1997–2000 to 22% in 2001–2003 (P = .04). The percentage of IPD cases that were empyema increased from 16% to 30% (P = .015), and the percentage of severe cases of IPD increased from 57% to 71% (P = .026). Children with IPD due to non-PCV7 serogroups were older, were more likely to have parapneumonic empyema, and had longer hospital stays.

Conclusions. The incidence of IPD in the IMW decreased by 27% after the introduction of the PCV7 vaccine. During the postvaccine period (2001–2003), there were significant decreases in the proportion of cases of IPD caused by PCV7 and antibiotic-resistant serogroups. These benefits were accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of IPD cases due to non-PCV7 serogroups, with increases in the incidence of empyema and severe IPD.

Journal Article.  5472 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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