Journal Article

Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Michael P. Stevens and Michael B. Edmond

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 41, issue 8, pages 1134-1142
Published in print October 2005 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/444459
Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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Background. Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is rare, and the literature consists almost exclusively of reports of single cases.

Methods. We report a case of VRE prosthetic valve endocarditis and review 18 cases of native and prosthetic valve VRE endocarditis reported in the literature.

Results. The majority of cases were due to Enterococcus faecium. Nearly all of these infections were hospital acquired, and the vast majority of patients had significant underlying disease processes, including dialysis and transplantation. More than three-quarters of cases were left-sided, and the aortic valve was most commonly involved. Peripheral stigmata of endocarditis were not reported in any of the cases. Approximately 40% of patients developed cardiac complications. Nearly three-quarters of patients survived, despite the difficulties associated with providing bactericidal antimicrobial therapy, and only 4 patients underwent valve replacement.

Conclusions. VRE endocarditis is an uncommon nosocomial infection that affects patients with significant comorbid conditions. Most cases are due to E. faecium, and the aortic valve is involved in at least one-half of cases. One-third of patients require surgical treatment. Optimal antimicrobial therapy remains undefined, but an attempt to identify bactericidal combination therapy should be sought.

Journal Article.  4627 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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