Journal Article

Cervicofacial Lymphadenitis in Children Caused by <i>Mycobacterium haemophilum</i>

Jerome A. Lindeboom, Jan M. Prins, Elisabeth S. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Robert Lindeboom and Ed J. Kuijper

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 41, issue 11, pages 1569-1575
Published in print December 2005 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online December 2005 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI:
Cervicofacial Lymphadenitis in Children Caused by Mycobacterium haemophilum

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Background. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lymphadenitis in children is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium. In a prospective, multicenter trial of the optimal treatment, 23.7% of the NTM cervicofacial lymphadenitis cases in children were caused by Mycobacterium haemophilum. In this article, we describe the epidemiological and clinical features of M. haemophilum cervicofacial lymphadenitis.

Methods. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium or M. haemophilum infection was established by culture or polymerase chain reaction. Demographic characteristics and data regarding clinical presentation and possible environmental exposure were compared for patients infected with M. avium and those infected with M. haemophilum.

Results. Ninety-four (69.9%) of 135 infections were caused by M. avium, 32 (23.7%) by M. haemophilum, and 9 (6.4%) by other NTM species. The median age of the M. haemophilum-infected children was 72 months, compared with 41 months for the M. avium-infected children (P < .001), with an equal distribution for both sexes. Involvement of multiple lymph nodes was frequently observed among the M. haemophilum-infected patients (56% of patients). Extranodal localizations were only observed in M. haemophilum-infected patients. Children with M. haemophilum infection were more likely to have a non-Dutch background (P = .001), and in most cases, they had a history of contact with swimming water (P = .03), whereas M. avium-infected patients were more likely to have a history of playing in sandpits (P = .01). In a multivariate analysis, only older age and a non-Dutch background were predisposing risk factors for M. haemophilum infection, compared with M. avium infection.

Conclusion. Higher age, non-Dutch background, and involvement of multiple cervicofacial lymph nodes with extranodal localizations distinguished M. haemophilum infection from M. avium infection.

Journal Article.  3461 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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