Background. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a frequent event after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and may progress to life-threatening lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) in the absence of adequate EBV-specific T cell immunity. Quantification of EBV DNA load in asymptomatic individuals who are at risk is a useful (although not entirely predictive) indicator of progression to EBV-LPD and guide for preemptive treatment with CD20 antibodies.
Methods. With the aim of improving the identification of patients at risk, we retrospectively analyzed, within a cohort of 25 consecutive allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients at risk for EBV-LPD, the pattern of T cell reconstitution during EBV reactivation in all preemptively treated patients (8 patients).
Results. In 6 of 8 cases, a significant T cell reconstitution (i.e., a CD3+ T cell count of >300 cells/µL) was documented during EBV reactivation, which included an expansion of EBV-specific memory T cells, as shown by human leukocyte antigen class I tetramer analysis. Additional evidence for the antiviral potential of this T cell reconstitution was obtained prospectively from a cohort of 14 consecutive allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients at risk for EBV-LPD. EBV reactivation occurred in 3 patients. Preemptive treatment was successfully withheld for 2 of these patients in light of concurrent (EBV-specific) T cell recovery.
Conclusion. We conclude that analysis of the level of (EBV-specific) T cell reconstitution during EBV reactivation is an important second parameter, in addition to quantification of EBV DNA load, that will be instrumental in a more accurate definition of patients at risk for EBV-LPD who, given their immunoincompetence, will be most certainly dependent on preemptive interventions.
Journal Article. 3244 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology
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