Journal Article

Genetic Analysis of Rubella Viruses Found in the United States between 1966 and 2004: Evidence That Indigenous Rubella Viruses Have Been Eliminated

Joseph P. Icenogle, Teryl K. Frey, Emily Abernathy, Susan E. Reef, David Schnurr and John A. Stewart

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 43, issue Supplement_3, pages S133-S140
Published in print November 2006 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online November 2006 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505945
Genetic Analysis of Rubella Viruses Found in the United States between 1966 and 2004: Evidence That Indigenous Rubella Viruses Have Been Eliminated

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Wild-type rubella viruses are genetically classified into 2 clades and 10 intraclade genotypes, of which 3 are provisional. The genotypes of 118 viruses from the United States were determined by sequencing part of the E1 coding region of these viruses and comparing the resulting sequences with reference sequences for each genotype, using the Bayesian inference program MRBAYES. Three genotypes of rubella viruses were found in the United States too infrequently to be considered for indigenous transmission. A fourth genotype was found frequently until 1981, and a fifth genotype was found frequently until 1988, but neither was obtained from nonimported cases after 1988. A sixth genotype was found frequently during 1996–2000, likely because of multiple importations from neighboring countries. The results of the present genetic analysis of rubella viruses found in the United States are consistent with elimination of indigenous viruses by 2001, the year when rubella was considered to be eliminated on the basis of epidemiological evidence.

Journal Article.  4524 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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