Journal Article

Randomized Controlled Trial of Chlorhexidine Gluconate for Washing, Intranasal Mupirocin, and Rifampin and Doxycycline Versus No Treatment for the Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> Colonization

Andrew E. Simor, Elizabeth Phillips, Allison McGeer, Ana Konvalinka, Mark Loeb, H. Rosalyn Devlin and Alex Kiss

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 44, issue 2, pages 178-185
Published in print January 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online January 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/510392
Randomized Controlled Trial of Chlorhexidine Gluconate for Washing, Intranasal Mupirocin, and Rifampin and Doxycycline Versus No Treatment for the Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

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Background. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage may reduce the risk of MRSA infection and prevent transmission of the organism to other patients.

Methods. To determine the efficacy of decolonization therapy, patients colonized with MRSA were randomized (3 : 1 allocation) to receive treatment (2% chlorhexidine gluconate washes and 2% mupirocin ointment intranasally, with oral rifampin and doxycycline for 7 days), or no treatment. Follow-up samples for MRSA culture were obtained from the nares, perineum, skin lesions, and catheter exit sites monthly for up to 8 months. The primary outcome measure was detection of MRSA at 3 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify variables associated with treatment failure.

Results. Of 146 patients enrolled in the study, 112 patients (87 treated; 25 not treated) were followed up for at least 3 months. At 3 months of follow-up, 64 (74%) of those treated had culture results negative for MRSA, compared with 8 (32%) of those not treated (P = .0001). This difference remained significant at 8 months of follow-up, at which time, 54% of those treated had culture results negative for MRSA (χ2 = 64.4; P < .0001, by log-rank test). The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that having a mupirocin-resistant isolate at baseline was associated with treatment failure (relative risk, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.8–31.9; P = .0003), whereas decolonization therapy was protective (relative risk, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.4; P = .0002). Mupirocin resistance emerged in only 5% of follow-up isolates.

Conclusions. Treatment with topical mupirocin, chlorhexidine gluconate washes, oral rifampin, and doxycycline for 7 days was safe and effective in eradicating MRSA colonization in hospitalized patients for at least 3 months.

Journal Article.  4655 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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