Journal Article

Options for a Second-Line Antiretroviral Regimen for HIV Type 1-Infected Patients Whose Initial Regimen of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Stavudine, Lamivudine, and Nevirapine Fails

Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Weerawat Manosuth, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Bucha Piyavong, Noppanath Chumpathat and Wasun Chantratita

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 44, issue 3, pages 447-452
Published in print February 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online February 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/510745
Options for a Second-Line Antiretroviral Regimen for HIV Type 1-Infected Patients Whose Initial Regimen of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Stavudine, Lamivudine, and Nevirapine Fails

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Background.A fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine is extensively used as an antiretroviral regimen in developing countries because of its affordability. Virological failure with this regimen has become more common, and a second-line regimen needs to be prepared in the national program.

Methods.Genotypic resistance testing was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients who experienced treatment failure with their first antiretroviral regimen (a fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) during 2003–2005. Patterns of resistance mutations and options for a second-line regimen were studied.

Results.We studied 98 patients (mean age, 35.2 years), of whom, 63% were male. The median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 20 months. The median HIV-1 RNA load at the time of virological failure detection was 4.1 log copies/mL. The prevalences of patients with ≥ 1 major mutation conferring drug resistance to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were 95% and 92%, respectively. M184V was the most common nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation (observed in 89% of patients). Thymidine analogue mutations, K65R, and Q151M were observed in 37%, 6%, and 8% of patients, respectively. Patients with an HIV-1 RNA load of >4 log copies/mL at the time of treatment failure had higher prevalence of thymidine analogue mutations (P = .041), K65R (P = .031), and Q151M (P = .008) mutations. The second-line regimen was determined in a resource-limited setting where tenofovir and enfuvirtide are not available; the options were limited for 48% of patients.

Conclusions.After experiencing treatment failure with a fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine, almost all patients have lamivudine and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance. The options for a second-line regimen are limited for one-half of these patients. In resource-limited settings where availability of antiretroviral agents is limited, strategies for prevention of HIV-1 resistance are crucial. Early detection of virological failure may provide more options and better treatment outcomes.

Journal Article.  3682 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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