Journal Article

Chronic Follicular Conjunctivitis Associated with <i>Chlamydia psittaci</i> or <i>Chlamydia pneumoniae</i>

Tom Lietman, David Brooks, Jeanne Moncada, Julius Schachter, Chandler Dawson and Deborah Dean

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 26, issue 6, pages 1335-1340
Published in print June 1998 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online June 1998 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/516373
Chronic Follicular Conjunctivitis Associated with Chlamydia psittaci or Chlamydia pneumoniae

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We determined whether patients with chronic conjunctivitis in whom direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests revealed genus-specific chlamydial antigens (but not species-specific Chlamydia trachomatis antigens) were infected with Chlamydia psittaci or Chlamydia pneumoniae. Patients were divided into a case group of possible non-trachomatis chlamydial conjunctivitis and a control group of nonchlamydial conjunctivitis on the basis of examination and DFA testing. Species-specific primers were used to amplify C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumoniae DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four (27%) of 15 samples from the case group were positive for C. psittaci or C. pneumoniae DNA, whereas none of 24 control samples were positive. Sequencing revealed a C. pneumoniae, an avian C. psittaci, and two mammalian C. psittaci strains. A short course of oral antibiotic treatment appears to be inadequate for patients with non-trachomatis chlamydial conjunctivitis. Ocular infections due to C. pneumoniae and C. psittaci may be more common than previously recognized and can be identified by DFA and PCR.

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Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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