Journal Article

Response to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Revaccination in HIV-Infected Children with Immune Recovery after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Linda Aurpibul, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Thira Sirisanthana and Virat Sirisanthana

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 45, issue 5, pages 637-642
Published in print September 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online September 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/520651
Response to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Revaccination in HIV-Infected Children with Immune Recovery after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

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Background. The low prevalence of measles antibody in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children after immune recovery as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of revaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in HIV-infected children with immune recovery.

Methods. Inclusion criteria were (1) HIV-infected children aged >5 years, (2) a nadir CD4 lymphocyte percentage ⩽15%, (3) immune recovery (defined as a CD4 lymphocyte percentage >15% for ⩾3 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy), and (4) no protective antibody against measles. Each child received 1 dose of MMR vaccine, and antibodies were measured at 4 and 24 weeks after vaccination. Protective antibodies were defined as an antimeasles immunoglobulin G (IgG) level ⩾320 mIU/mL, an antimumps IgG titer >1:500, and an antirubella IgG level >10 IU/mL.

Results. There were 51 participants. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 10.2 ± 2.5 years. Prior to revaccination, 28 participants (55%) had baseline protective antibody to mumps, and 11 (20%) had baseline protective antibody to rubella. The prevalence of protective antibody at 4 weeks was 90%, 100%, and 78% for measles, rubella, and mumps, respectively, and then slightly decreased to 80%, 94%, and 61%, respectively, at 24 weeks after revaccination. No serious adverse reactions were attributed to revaccination.

Conclusions. The majority of HIV-infected children with immune recovery can develop protective antibodies after MMR revaccination. Revaccination with MMR vaccine in HIV-infected children with immune recovery should be considered to ensure individual immunity and limit the spread of disease.

Journal Article.  3248 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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