Journal Article

Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

Bruce Gellin, John F. Modlin, Eliav Barr and Gretchen Tamms

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 45, issue 5, pages 609-617
Published in print September 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online September 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI:
Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

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The lifetime risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection exceeds 50%. HPV infection causes >550,000 cases of cervical and anogenital cancer worldwide annually. Infection also causes precancerous lesions and genital warts. HPV types 16 and 18 cause ∼70% of HPV-related cancers, and HPV types 6 and 11 cause ∼90% of cases of genital warts. A quadrivalent vaccine for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV 6/11/16/18) has been developed for prevention of cervical cancer, genital warts, and vulvar and vaginal precancerous lesions. Prophylactic vaccination of young women was 96%–100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and anogenital precancers and genital warts. Efficacy remained high for at least 5 years following vaccination. Postvaccination anti-HPV levels in adolescents were superior to those observed in women (the population in which efficacy was shown). Vaccination was generally well tolerated. The vaccine is licensed in >80 countries. It has been added to national vaccination programs, including that of the United States. Widespread use of HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine is expected to greatly reduce the incidence of HPV-related cancers, precancers, and genital warts.

Journal Article.  5136 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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