Journal Article

Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and HIV Coinfection: Relationship between Prolonged Efficacy of HAART and HBV Surface and Early Antigen Seroconversion

Patrick Miailhes, Mary-Anne Trabaud, Pierre Pradat, Bertrand Lebouché, Miché le Chevallier, Philippe Chevallier, Fabien Zoulim and Christian Trepo

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 45, issue 5, pages 624-632
Published in print September 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online September 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/520752
Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and HIV Coinfection: Relationship between Prolonged Efficacy of HAART and HBV Surface and Early Antigen Seroconversion

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Background. Coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is common. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected populations, especially the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the outcome of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) status.

Methods. The characteristics of 92 patients coinfected with HIV and HBV were retrospectively assessed before and after HAART and lamivudine treatment to determine the impact of treatment on chronic hepatitis B and factors associated with HBeAg and/or HBsAg seroconversion.

Results. During follow-up, 82 patients received antiretroviral therapy, 79 of whom received HAART. Twenty-eight of the 76 patients who were administered lamivudine therapy developed lamivudine resistance mutations. While receiving antiretroviral therapy, 10 of 59 HBeAg—positive patients developed antibody to HBeAg, 3 of 10 cleared HBsAg, and 2 of 3 developed antibody to HBsAg. Two of 23 HBeAg-negative patients cleared HBsAg and developed antibody to HBsAg. HBeAg and/or HBsAg seroconversion combined with an undetectable HBV DNA level (i.e., an HBV response) correlated with a sustained HIV response (P = .001), shorter duration of antiretroviral therapy (P = .058), and more-severe disease, as evaluated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staging (for stage B vs. stage A, P = .029; for stage C vs. stage A, P = .069). For patients with elevated baseline alanine aminotransferase levels, the HBV response correlated significantly with a greater increase in CD4 cell count while receiving HAART.

Conclusions. In HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, HBV response correlated with a sustained HIV response to antiretroviral therapy, usually HAART including lamivudine.

Journal Article.  4422 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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