Journal Article

Morbidity, Mortality, and Response to Treatment by Children in the United Kingdom and Ireland with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection during 1996–2006: Planning for Teenage and Adult Care

Ali Judd, Katja Doerholt, Pat A. Tookey, Mike Sharland, Andrew Riordan, Esse Menson, Vas Novelli, E. G. Hermione Lyall, Janet Masters, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Trinh Duong and Di M. Gibb

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 45, issue 7, pages 918-924
Published in print October 2007 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online October 2007 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/521167
Morbidity, Mortality, and Response to Treatment by Children in the United Kingdom and Ireland with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection during 1996–2006: Planning for Teenage and Adult Care

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Background. Recent evidence suggests that decreases in morbidity and mortality in cohorts of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are showing signs of reversal. We describe changes over time in these characteristics and in the response to treatment among children in the United Kingdom and Ireland with perinatally acquired HIV infection, many of whom are now adolescents.

Methods. We analyzed prospective cohort data reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) and the Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study.

Results. By mid 2006, 1441 HIV-infected children were reported to NSHPC; 40% were ⩾10 years old at their most recent follow-up visit, and 34% were receiving care outside London. The proportion of children born abroad increased from 24% during 1994–1996 to 64% during 2003–2006. The percentage of total child time during which children received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) increased from 36% during 1997–1999 to 61% during 2000–2002 and 63% during 2003–2006. Of children who were naive to antiretroviral therapy at the start of HAART, the percentage with an HIV-1 RNA load of <400 copies/mL after 12 months increased from 52% during 1997–1999 to 79% during 2003–2006. In multivariate analysis, only calendar time predicted virological response, whereas both younger age and lower CD4 cell percentage at HAART initiation predicted increases of >10% in the CD4 cell percentage. A total of 31% of children aged 5–14 years and 38% aged ⩾15 years at their most recent follow-up visit had been exposed to drugs from each of the 3 main HAART classes. The rate of AIDS and mortality combined decreased from 13.3 cases per 100 person-years before 1997 to 3.1 and 2.5 cases per 100 person-years, respectively, during 2000–2002 and 2003–2006; rates of hospital admission also declined during this interval. Of 18 children known to have died since 2003, 9 died within 1 month after presentation.

Conclusions. Morbidity and mortality rates among HIV-infected children continue to decrease over time. Because these children are increasingly dispersed outside London, specialist care is now provided in national clinical networks. Transition pathways to adolescent and adult services and long-term observation to monitor the effects of prolonged exposure to both HIV and HAART are required.

Journal Article.  4061 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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