Journal Article

Ganciclovir/Valganciclovir Prophylaxis Decreases Cytomegalovirus-Related Events and Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Lung Transplantation

Corinne Chmiel, Rudolf Speich, Markus Hofer, Detlef Michel, Thomas Mertens, Walter Weder and Annette Boehler

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 46, issue 6, pages 831-839
Published in print March 2008 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online March 2008 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/528689
Ganciclovir/Valganciclovir Prophylaxis Decreases Cytomegalovirus-Related Events and Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Lung Transplantation

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Background. Until recently, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represented a major threat to lung transplant recipients. Preliminary studies have shown that antiviral prophylaxis might improve the outcome for these patients.

Methods. We extended our initial pilot trial of prolonged prophylaxis with either oral ganciclovir (1 g 3 times per day) or valganciclovir (450 mg twice per day). The trial included 96 patients who were at risk for CMV-related events.

Results. CMV prophylaxis resulted in a significant decrease in CMV-related events (i.e., active infection and disease), from 75% in a control group and for 274 cases from the literature who did not receive prophylaxis to a cumulative incidence of 27% (P<.001). Only 11% of the prophylaxis recipients experienced CMV disease (P<.001). Moreover, at 5 years, there was a significant decrease in the rate of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, from 60% to 43% (P=.002), and an improved rate of survival, from 47% to 73% (P=.036), irrespective of the immunosuppressive regimen received. CMV strains with UL97 mutations were recovered from 7 of 12 analyzed cases, but the presence of this mutation had no impact on the severity of CMV disease.

Conclusions. A regimen of prolonged ganciclovir or valganciclovir prophylaxis decreased the rate of active CMV infection and disease, reduced the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and improved the survival rate. Drug-resistant CMV strains may occur, but such strains appeared to have no impact on the outcome of CMV-related events.

Journal Article.  4172 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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