Journal Article

Predictors of Renal Outcome in HIV-Associated Nephropathy

Frank A. Post, Lucy J. Campbell, Lisa Hamzah, Lisa Collins, Rachael Jones, Rizwan Siwani, Leann Johnson, Martin Fisher, Stephen G. Holt, Sanjay Bhagani, Andrew H. Frankel, Edmund Wilkins, Jonathan G. Ainsworth, Nick Larbalestier, Derek C. Macallan, Debasish Banerjee, Guy Baily, Raj C. Thuraisingham, Paul Donohoe, Bruce M. Hendry, Rachel M. Hilton, Simon G. Edwards, Robert Hangartner, Alexander J. Howie, John O. Connolly and Philippa J. Easterbrook

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 46, issue 8, pages 1282-1289
Published in print April 2008 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online April 2008 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529385
Predictors of Renal Outcome in HIV-Associated Nephropathy

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Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of end-stage renal disease among African American patients. This study was performed to study the epidemiology of HIVAN in a predominantly black African population and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and other factors on the development of end-stage renal disease.

Methods. We retrospectively identified all patients with HIVAN, defined by biopsy or strict clinical criteria, in 8 clinics in the United Kingdom. Baseline renal function, HIV parameters, renal pathological index of chronic damage, and responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy were analyzed, and factors associated with adverse renal outcome were identified.

Results. From 1998 through 2004, we studied 16,834 patients, 61 of whom had HIVAN. HIVAN prevalence in black patients was 0.93%, and HIVAN incidence in those without renal disease at baseline was 0.61 per 1000 person-years. After a median of 4.2 years, 34 patients (56%) had developed end-stage renal disease. There were no significant differences in renal function and HIV parameters at baseline, time to initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and rates of HIV RNA suppression between the 20 patients who developed end-stage renal disease >3 months after receiving the HIVAN diagnosis and the 23 patients who maintained stable renal function. However, the index of chronic damage score was significantly higher in those who developed end-stage renal disease (P<.001), and an index of chronic damage score >75 was associated with shorter renal survival (P<.001).

Conclusions. Whereas overall patient survival suggested an important benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy, no additional renal benefit of early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression could be demonstrated in this large cohort of patients with established HIVAN. Severity of chronic kidney damage, as quantified by biopsy, was the strongest predictor of renal outcome.

Journal Article.  4214 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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