Background. Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis by use of antimicrobial catheter lock solutions has been examined in several trials, but no consensus is available for clinical practice.
Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed of randomized controlled trials that compared single or combination antimicrobial catheter lock solutions with heparin or another antimicrobial for the prevention of infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The primary outcomes assessed were bloodstream infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and the need for catheter removal. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual trials were pooled.
Results. Eleven trials (924 patients) that assessed antibiotic catheter lock solutions and 5 trials (661 patients) that assessed nonantibiotic antimicrobial catheter lock solutions met inclusion criteria. None of the trials assessed all bloodstream infections. Antibiotic catheter lock solutions significantly reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections (relative risk, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.38–0.50). Significant heterogeneity for this outcome could be explained by smaller effect estimates in larger trials that reported adequate randomization methods (relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.54–0.67). Efficacy was higher when additional preventive measures were used and to prevent the first episode of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Catheter removal rates were significantly reduced (relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23–0.55). Resistance development was documented in a single patient. Data concerning nonantibiotic antimicrobial lock solutions were limited and heterogenous. High-quality trials that used additional preventive measures showed a significant reduction in catheter-related bloodstream infections (relative risk, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.13–0.50).
Conclusions. Antibiotic catheter lock solutions reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections, with a number needed to treat of 4 patients (95% CI, 4–5), and catheter removal rates in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The use of antibiotic catheter lock solutions should be considered in routine clinical practice in conjunction with other prevention modalities.
Journal Article. 5467 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology
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