Journal Article

Impact of Hepatitis B Virus Infection on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria

John Idoko, Seema Meloni, Mohammed Muazu, Ladep Nimzing, Bitrus Badung, Claudia Hawkins, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Ernest Ekong, Robert Murphy, Phyllis Kanki and Chloe L. Thio

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 49, issue 8, pages 1268-1273
Published in print October 2009 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online October 2009 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/605675
Impact of Hepatitis B Virus Infection on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria

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Background. As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is introduced into areas of the world in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic, it is important to determine the influence of HBV on persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV coinfection who are receiving ART.

Methods. We studied 1564 HIV-infected patients in Jos, Nigeria, who initiated ART. Participants with HIV-HBV coinfection had hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA status determined. CD4+T cell count and HIV load at ART initiation were compared between individuals with HIV monoinfection and those with HIV-HBV coinfection with use of univariate methods. Regression analyses were used to determine if HBeAg status or HBV DNA at ART initiation were associated with baseline HIV parameters or ART response.

Results. The median CD4+T cell count of the 262 participants with HIV-HBV coinfection (16.7%) was 107 cells/mL, compared with 130 cells/mL for participants with HIV monoinfection at ART initiation (P<.001). Participants with HIV-HBV coinfection also had higher HIV loads than did patients with HIV monoinfection (4.96 vs 4.75 log10copies/mL; p=.02). Higher HBV DNA and detectable HBeAg levels were independently associated with lower CD4+T cell counts at ART initiation but not with higher HIV loads. In a multivariable model, HBeAg-positive patients were less likely than HBeAg-negative patients to suppress HIV replication to ⩽400 copies/mL (odds ratio, 0.54; P=.03) at 24 weeks, but they had similar CD4+T cell increases. At 48 weeks, there was no significant effect of HBeAg status on ART response.

Conclusions. Among HIV-infected Nigerian individuals, HBV coinfection, especially among those with high levels of HBV replication, was associated with lower CD4+T cell counts at ART initiation, independent of HIV RNA level. Patients with HBeAg-positive status had a slower virological response to ART, compared with HBeAg-negative patients. Further work is needed to understand the effects of HBV on CD4+T cells.

Journal Article.  4017 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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