Journal Article

Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

John A. Crump and Eric D. Mintz

Edited by James M. Hughes and Mary E. Wilson

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 50, issue 2, pages 241-246
Published in print January 2010 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online January 2010 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/649541
Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

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Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High-quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop vaccines that are immunogenic in infants after a single dose and that can be produced locally in countries of endemicity. The growing importance of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A in Asia is concerning. Antimicrobial resistance has sequentially emerged to traditional first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, posing patient treatment challenges. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The availability of full genome sequences for S. enterica serotype Typhi and S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A confirms their place as monomorphic, human-adapted pathogens vulnerable to control measures if international efforts can be redoubled.

Journal Article.  4857 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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