Journal Article

Absence of HIV-1 Superinfection 1 Year after Infection between 1985 and 1997 Coincides with a Reduction in Sexual Risk Behavior in the Seroincident Amsterdam Cohort of Homosexual Men

Andrea Rachinger, Ineke G. Stolte, Tom Derks van de Ven, Judith A. Burger, Maria Prins, Hanneke Schuitemaker and Angélique B. van 't Wout

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 50, issue 9, pages 1309-1315
Published in print May 2010 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online May 2010 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651687
Absence of HIV-1 Superinfection 1 Year after Infection between 1985 and 1997 Coincides with a Reduction in Sexual Risk Behavior in the Seroincident Amsterdam Cohort of Homosexual Men

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Background. Incidence rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection differ among cohorts and, as yet, only 2 cohorts of homosexual men have been screened. Here, we investigated the incidence of HIV-1 superinfection during the first year after infection among homosexual participants in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who seroconverted between 1985 and 1997.

Methods. We analyzed env C2–C4 diversity in the serum of therapy-naive participants, using a heteroduplex mobility assay; heteroduplexes were considered to be indicators of potential dual infections, in which case env C2–C4 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were cloned and sequenced. Sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Data on the sexual behavior of participants were collected from 1 year before seroconversion until the end of the investigated period.

Results. For 89 seroconverters with a detectable viral load (>1000 copies/mL), env PCR products were generated from serum samples obtained at seroconversion and 1 year later. Heteroduplexes were observed in 68 of the 89 patients; among these 68 patients, a median of 9 molecular clones per time point was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis did not reveal evidence for superinfection; 1 patient was HIV-1 coinfected. Shortly after diagnosis of HIV infection, the number of sex partners decreased, the frequency of anal intercourse declined, and condom use increased.

Conclusions. The incidence of HIV-1 superinfection soon after seroconversion in this cohort is low. Risk reduction shortly after HIV-1 diagnosis early during the HIV-1 epidemic in the Netherlands may have contributed to the absence of HIV-1 superinfection observed in this study.

Journal Article.  4816 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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