Journal Article

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis: Clinical Update

Soumya Swaminathan, C. Padmapriyadarsini and G. Narendran

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 50, issue 10, pages 1377-1386
Published in print May 2010 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online May 2010 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/652147
HIV-Associated Tuberculosis: Clinical Update

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has led to an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Coinfection with HIV leads to difficulties in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, more sensitive tests—such as liquid culture systems, nucleic acid amplification assays, and detection of mycobacterial products in various body fluids—are being investigated. The treatment of coinfected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution syndrome. Both multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis can spread rapidly among an immunocompromised population, with resulting high mortality rates. Current guidelines recommend starting antiretroviral treatment within a few weeks of antituberculosis therapy for patients with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/µL; however, important questions about the drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain. Ongoing trials may answer many of these unresolved questions.

Journal Article.  6290 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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