Journal Article

Nutritional Supplementation in HIV-Infected Individuals in South India: A Prospective Interventional Study

S. Swaminathan, C. Padmapriyadarsini, L. Yoojin, B. Sukumar, S. Iliayas, J. Karthipriya, R. Sakthivel, P. Gomathy, B. E. Thomas, M. Mathew, C. A. Wanke and P. R. Narayanan

in Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America

Volume 51, issue 1, pages 51-57
Published in print July 2010 | ISSN: 1058-4838
Published online July 2010 | e-ISSN: 1537-6591 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/653111
Nutritional Supplementation in HIV-Infected Individuals in South India: A Prospective Interventional Study

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Background. Malnutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is associated with faster disease progression, higher mortality rates, and suboptimal response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods. We conducted a prospective interventional study to evaluate the effects of an oral macronutrient supplement among HIV-infected adults in South India. Patients attending Tuberculosis Research Centre clinics from June 2005 through December 2007 had baseline nutritional assessment and laboratory investigations performed. Patients at 1 center received nutritional counseling and standard care, whereas patients at 2 centers additionally received a macronutrient providing 400 cal and 15 g of protein daily. Study outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, blood chemistry, and immune status at 6 months.

Results. In total, 636 ART-naive patients were enrolled in the study; 361 completed 6 months of follow-up (282 received supplements and 79 received standard care). Mean age ±; standard deviation (SD) was 31±;7 years, mean weight ± SD was 50±10 kg, and 42% were male. Significant increases in body weight, body mass index, midarm circumference, fat-free mass, and body cell mass were observed in the supplement group but not in the control group at 6 months; gains were greater in patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µL. No changes were observed in lipid levels, whereas the CD4 cell count decreased in the control group. However, after adjusting for baseline differences, these changes were not statistically significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions. Macronutrient supplementation did not result in significantly increased weight gain compared with standard care (including nutritional counseling) among patients with moderately advanced HIV disease. The effect of supplementation on specific subsets of patients and on preserving immune function needs further research.

Journal Article.  3806 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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