From Independence to 1969

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan

Published in print September 2001 | ISBN: 9780195144260
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780199833931 | DOI:

Series: Religion and Global Politics

 From Independence to 1969

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Malaysia and Pakistan were created from the rump of British colonialism in India and Southeast Asia. Both states lacked national identity or a unified polity that preceded independence. Both confronted social divisions that were the legacy of the colonial era. In fact, in both countries the struggle for independence was not directed against the British, but was a competition of racial, religious, and ethnic rivals. As weak states, they were unable to proceed with effective state formation. Economic Disparities in Malaysia led to racial and ethnic tensions. Weak state institutions and constitutional crises led to ethnic tensions in Pakistan.

Keywords: constitutional crises; economic disparities; ethnic conflict; independence; Malaysia; national identity; Pakistan; social divisions; state formation

Chapter.  9531 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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