Chapter

Secular States in Crisis

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan

Published in print September 2001 | ISBN: 9780195144260
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780199833931 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195144260.003.0004

Series: Religion and Global Politics

 Secular States in Crisis

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Malaysia and Pakistan sought to address their problems through economic growth and the management of ethnic tensions. Malaysia pursued the New Economic Policy (NEP) to favor Malay bumiputras (sons of the soil), and Pakistan, under a military government, pursued aggressive economic growth. However, these strategies did not resolve ethnic tensions as in Malaysia it did not alleviate the economic problems facing Malays, and in Pakistan it favored Punjab at the cost of other provinces, especially East Pakistan. Both states continued to experience serious challenges to their authorities in the form of racial tensions in Malaysia and the Bangladesh movement in Pakistan.

Keywords: Bangladesh; bumiputra; East Pakistan; economic growth; ethnic tension; Malaysia; military government; New Economic Policy; Pakistan; Punjab

Chapter.  6707 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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